愛因斯坦與相對論

 

閒逛到Yahoo知識+,看到物理分類裡面不少關於相對論的探討,但是許多發言根本與相對論無關,連回到過去、時光機、平行世界、黑洞、蟲洞等等科幻題材都扯上相對論,但卻連相對論的內容都不明白,似乎書本不念,邏輯不通的科幻小說跟電影卻看得不少。

狹義相對論是用來修正牛頓力學的,算是古典物理的延伸。狹義相對論的兩個重點是光速恆定與相對性原理。

廣義相對論是研究巨觀系統的,探討時間空間的基本性質,並修正了牛頓的重力論。一般人所說相對論艱深難懂,指的是廣義相對論。

在愛因斯坦的相對論中,沒有絕對的存在,一切都是相對的。  984846125_1b9ceefebe

牛頓力學的動者恆動,靜者恆靜,是在相對觀察下的結果。在現實宇宙中,完全的靜止是不存在的。

質量守衡的情況是有特定條件的,在高能狀態下,能量可化為質量,質與能可以互換,這就是愛因斯坦最有名的方程式。

任何有質量的物體都不可能到達光速,速度越快,能量越大,能量越大,則質量就越大,質量越大,推動所需的能量也無限增大。

狹義與廣義相對論的區別在於所討論的問題是否涉及重力〈彎曲時空〉,狹義相對論只涉及那些沒有重力作用或者重力作用可以忽略的問題,而廣義相對論則是討論有重力作用時的物理學的。用相對論的語言來說,就是狹義相對論的背景時空是平直的,而廣義相對論的背景時空則是彎曲的。廣義相對論中,愛因斯坦假設重力不是一個力,而是在時空連續(space-time continuum)中一個扭曲的場,而這個扭曲是由於質量存在造成的。牛頓的重力論從此只是愛因斯坦廣義相對論中的一個特例。

愛因斯坦一開始是被質疑的,直到1919年有一次日全蝕,愛因斯坦利用廣義相對論計算星光經過太陽邊緣時產生的偏折,比傳統牛頓力學計算的大上一倍。英國天文學會派遣了兩支觀察隊,一支到巴西,一支到西非進行觀測,藉以驗證愛因斯坦的理論,此時愛因斯坦的好友、量子力學的創始者蒲朗克徹夜未眠,急著想知道觀測結果,而愛因斯坦卻信心十足的去睡覺,他說:「如果蒲朗克真正瞭解廣義相對論,那麼他一定跟我一樣安心地睡大覺!」結果觀察隊證實了愛因斯坦的計算,這個事件成為所有媒體頭條轟動全世界。

負責頒發諾貝爾獎的瑞典皇家科學院決定頒獎給愛因斯坦,但諾貝爾獎必須頒給對人類有重大用途的新發現者,可是沒有人敢肯定愛因斯坦的相對論是否是個正確的新發現。於是皇家學院想出一個變通的方法,頒獎給愛因斯坦,但得獎理由是:「此獎頒給愛因斯坦,因為他對光電理論及理論物理學上的重大貢獻。」因此愛因斯坦的諾貝爾物理獎不是因為相對論,而是光電效應。

光電效應起因於光〈或其他形式電磁輻射〉所引起物質導電性的改變。物質吸收入射光而產生帶電的載子,例如在半導體中的傳導電子及電洞,或是金屬表面放出光電子而留下正離子。光電效應在現代生活中的應用相當廣泛,若無光電效應理論的提出,人類現今的生活仍會相當落後。

P.S 愛因斯坦終生未上過大學,他曾數次申請入學申請被拒,相對論提出那年他二十七歲。

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